Morten Bergsmo

Morten Bergsmo
Bergsmo with Philip Allott, October 2015.
Bergsmo with Stanford donors, November 2012.
Bergsmo with Thorvald Stoltenberg, August 2012.
Bergsmo with Luis Moreno-Ocampo, the first ICC Prosecutor, June 2003.

Morten Bergsmo, a European international lawyer, has served as an academic in China, Europe and North-America. He is currently Director of the Centre for International Law Research and Policy and Visiting Professor at Peking University Law School. He has authored or edited more than 60 academic publications in international law, including 18 books (see the publication list below), and is a frequent lecturer in Europe and abroad.

Formerly, Bergsmo served academically as Visiting Professor, Georgetown University (2010-12); Fernand Braudel Senior Fellow, European University Institute (2011 Spring); Visiting Fellow, Stanford University (2010-13); Visiting Scholar, UC Berkeley (2010 Spring); Researcher, University of Oslo (2010-12); and Senior Researcher, PRIO (2006-09). He has consistently been ranked among the top teachers at the universities where he has taught. He has practiced as Special Adviser to the Office of the Director of Public Prosecution of Norway (2007-08); Senior Legal Adviser and Chief of the Legal Advisory Section, ICC Office of the Prosecutor (2002-05); Co-ordinator of the establishment of the ICC Office of the Prosecutor (2002-03); Legal Adviser, ICTY (1994-2002); and Legal Adviser, UN Commission of Experts for the Former Yugoslavia established pursuant to Security Council resolution 780 (1992) (1993-94). He represented the ICTY to the UN negotiation process to establish the ICC (1996-2002) and has extensive multilateral and international organizations experience. He has advised peace processes, the European Commission, several governments, and the Nobel Committee.   

Bergsmo has pioneered the equalisation of access to international law sources, consistently arguing that access should be open to increase professional equality among legal actors around the world and their empowerment. To serve this policy objective, he directs the ICC's Legal Tools Project and founded the capacity development organization CMN, having worked with national criminal justice systems in more than 30 countries. Bergsmo also founded and directs the Forum for International Criminal and Humanitarian Law (FICHL), and is Editor-in-Chief of the Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher (TOAEP), the first open-access publisher of its kind in international law. Through his institutional and academic service he has coined and developed several key concepts in the contemporary international criminal law discourse, such as 'positive complementarity', 'impunity gap', 'contextual element', 'objective and subjective elements', 'thematic prosecution', 'old evidence of core international crimes', 'military self-interest in accountability', ‘fact-work’‘quality control in fact-finding’quality control in preliminary examination, and 'capacity engagement'. Through various CILRAP activities and his personal example since 2012, he has urged a greater engagement with international law capacity in China and India.  Bergsmo has two daughters, descends from an old Norwegian family, and has his base in Florence. He has worked or studied in Beijing, Cambridge, Copenhagen, Florence, Geneva, Haifa, London, New York, Prague, Oslo, Stanford, The Hague and Washington, DC.

Some publications of Morten Bergsmo:

"The Role of Internationalised Jurisdictions, National Jurisdictions and Other Actors in the Making of the History of International Criminal Law", in Morten Bergsmo, CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying and YI Ping (editors), "Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 4", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, pp. 1-12 (with CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying, YI Ping and ZHANG Binxin). 

"Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 4", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, 996 pp., ISBN 978-82-8348-017-7 (print) and 978-82-8348-016-0 (e-book) (co-editor with CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying and YI Ping).

"Doctrine and the Scope of the Historical Landscape of International Criminal Law", in Morten Bergsmo, CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying and YI Ping (editors), "Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 3", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, pp. 1-12 (with CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying, YI Ping and ZHANG Binxin). 

"Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 3", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, 837 pp., ISBN 978-82-8348-015-3 (print) and 978-82-8348-014-6 (e-book) (co-editor with CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying and YI Ping). Reviewed by WU Xiaodan in Chinese Yearbook of International Law, 2015, pp. 491-508

 "Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 4", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, 996 pp., ISBN 978-82-8348-017-7 (print) and 978-82-8348-016-0 (e-book) (co-editor with CHEAH Wui Ling, SONG Tianying and YI Ping). Reviewed by WU Xiaodan in Chinese Yearbook of International Law, 2015, pp. 491-508.

"Defining the Purposes, Mandates and Outcomes of Fact-Finding Commissions Beyond International Criminal Justice", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, FICHL Policy Brief Series No. 38 (2015), Brussels, 2015, ISBN 978-82-8348-007-8 (with Marina Aksenova).

"Ensuring Accountability for Core International Crimes in Armed Forces: Obligations and Self-Interest", in Morten Bergsmo and SONG Tianying (editors), "Military Self-Interest in Accountability for Core International Crimes”, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, pp. 1-20 (with SONG Tianying).

"Military Self-Interest in Accountability for Core International Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2015, 470 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-61-6 (print) and 978-82-93081-81-4 (e-book) (co-editor with SONG Tianying). Reviewed by XUE Ru in Chinese Yearbook of International Law, 2015, pp. 474-490; by William J. Fenrick in International Review of the Red Cross, 1 June 2016, 4 pp.

"Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 2", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2014, 805 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-13-5 (co-editor with CHEAH Wui Ling and YI Ping). Reviewed by WU Xiaodan in Chinese Yearbook of International Law, 2014, pp. 607-627; by Mitsue Inazumi in The Journal of International Law and Diplomacy, Vol. 114, No. 2, pp. 231-34.

"Historical Origins of International Criminal Law: Volume 1", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2014, 720 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-11-1 (co-editor with CHEAH Wui Ling and YI Ping). Reviewed by WU Xiaodan in Chinese Yearbook of International Law, 2014, pp. 607-627; by Mitsue Inazumi in The Journal of International Law and Diplomacy, Vol. 114, No. 2, pp. 231-34; Review by Noelia V. Matalone in InDret (Revista para el analisis del derecho), 3/2016, pp. 1-5.

"On the Proposed Crimes Against Humanity Convention", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2014, 503 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-96-8 (co-editor with SONG Tianying). Book essay by SONG Tianying in Chinese Yearbook of International law, 2014, pp. 519-547. Reviewed by William St-Michel in Journal of International Criminal Justice, Vol. 13 (2015), pp. 897-898.Book essay by SONG Tianying in Chinese Review of International Law, Issue No. 2016 (3), pp. 89-101.

"A Crimes Against Humanity Convention After the Establishment of the International Criminal Court", in Morten Bergsmo and SONG Tianying (editors), "On the Proposed Crimes Against Humanity Convention”, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Brussels, 2014, pp. 1-16 (with SONG Tianying).

"Quality Control in Fact-Finding", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Florence, 2013, 500 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-78-4 (editor). Reviewed by James G. Devaney in European Journal of International Law 25 (2014), 355–359; by Gunnar Ekeløve-Slydal in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 32 (2014), pp. 192-195.

"Non-Criminal Justice Fact-Work in the Age of Accountability", in Morten Bergsmo (editor): Quality Control in Fact-Finding, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Florence, 2013, pp. 1-33 (with Marina Aksenova).

"Military Self-Interest in Accountability for Core International Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, FICHL Policy Brief Series No. 14 (2013), Oslo, 2013, ISBN 978-82-93081-74-6 (with Arne Willy Dahl and Richard Sousa, also published in Arabic, French and Spanish).

"Examining Thematic Prosecutions and the Challenges of Understanding and Proving International Sex Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, FICHL Policy Brief Series No. 10 (2013), Oslo, 2013, ISBN 978-82-93081-64-7 (with Alf Butenschøn Skre, CHEAH Wui Ling and Elisabeth J. Wood).

"Old Evidence and Core International Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, 313 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-60-9 (co-editor). Reviewed by Moritz Vormbaum in Journal of International Criminal Justice (2013), 485-498. and in Journal Der Juristischen Zeitgeschichte 3(2013), pp. 124-5; by WU Xueqin Kristin in Asian Journal of International Law 4 (2014), pp. 426-428.

"Placing Old Evidence and Core International Crimes on the Agenda of the International Discourse on International Criminal Justice for Atrocities", in Morten Bergsmo and CHEAH Wui Ling (editors): Old Evidence and Core International Crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, pp. 1-8 (with CHEAH Wui Ling).  

"State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, 299 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-35-7 (English) and 978-82-93081-58-6 (Chinese) (co-editor with LING Yan). Reviewed by Alexandre Skander Galand in European Journal of International Law 25 (2014), pp. 625-629 (English); by LIAO Minwen in Chinese Yearbook of International Law, 2013, pp. 521-549(Chinese); by Hanne Sophie Greve in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 33, 1 (2015), pp. 104–107.

"On State Sovereignty and Individual Criminal Responsibility for Core International Crimes in International Law", in Morten Bergsmo and LING Yan (editors): State Sovereignty and International Criminal Law, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, pp. 1-12 (with LING Yan).  

"Understanding and Proving International Sex Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, 894 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-29-6 (co-editor with Alf Butenschøn Skre and Elisabeth J. Wood). Reviewed by Christian Ranheim in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 31:1 (2013), 108-109; by Amanda H. Blair in Journal of Peace Research 49(6) (2012), p. 874.

"Towards a More Comprehensive Understanding and Effective Proving of International Sex Crimes", in Morten Bergsmo, Alf Butenschøn Skre and Elisabeth J. Wood (editors): Understanding and Proving International Sex Crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, pp. 1-12 (with Alf Butenschøn Skre).

"Thematic Prosecution of International Sex Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, 452 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-31-9 (editor). Reviewed by Christian Ranheim in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 31:1 (2013), 108-109; by Amanda H. Blair in Journal of Peace Research 49(6) p. 873; by Fletch Williams in Leiden Journal of International Law 26:3 pp. 772-776; by Nyasha Karimakwenda in Yale Journal of International Affairs, Oct. 16, 2013, 1 of 5; by Stéphanie Bürgenmeier in Australian & New Zealand Journal of Criminology 47 (2014), pp. 305-306.  

"Towards Rational Thematic Prosecution and the Challenge of International Sex Crimes", in Morten Bergsmo (editor): Thematic Prosecution of International Sex Crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Beijing, 2012, pp. 1-10 (with CHEAH Wui Ling).

"Justicia distributiva en sociedades en transicion", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2012, 468 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-10-4 (Spanish), (co-editor with César Rodriguez-Garavito, Pablo Kalmanovitz and Maria Paula). Reviewed by Gunnar Ekeløve-Slydal in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 31:3 (2013), 464-467; by Zinaida Miller in International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2013, 1–11.

"Perspectiva internacional: Enfrentando una fila de atrocidades pasadas: como seleccionar y priorizar casos de crimenes internacionales nucleares?", in Kai Ambos (editor): Seleccion y priorizacion como estrategia de persecucion en los cases de crimenes internacionales, Bogota, 2011, ISBN 978-958-8438-53-5, pp. 23-112 (with Maria Paula Saffon).  

"Complementarity and the Challenges of Equality and Empowerment", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Policy Brief Series No. 8 (2011), Oslo, 2011, ISBN 978-82-93081-57-9.

"Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2011, 572 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-56-2 (editor). Reviewed by David Cohen in Journal of International Criminal Justice (2012) 10 (4): 1017-1019.

"The In-depth Evidence Analysis Charts at the International Criminal Court", in Morten Bergsmo (editor): Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2011, pp. 313-347 (with Olympia Bekou).

"Justice after decades in Bangladesh: national trials for international crimes", in Journal of Genocide Research (2011), 13(4), November 2011, 503-510.

"Prosecutorial Discretion: Institutional or Professional Reform?", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Policy Brief Series No. 7 (2011), Oslo, 2011, ISBN 978-82-93081-54-8.

"Using Old Evidence in Core International Crimes Cases", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Policy Brief Series No. 6 (2010), Oslo, 2011, ISBN 978-82-93081-52-4 (English) and 978-82-93081-53-1 (Bengali).

"Complementarity and the construction of national ability", in Carsten Stahn and Mohamed M. El Zeidy: The International Criminal Court and Complementarity, From Theory to Practice, Volume II, Cambridge University Press, 2011, pp. 1052-1070 (with Olympia Bekou and Annika Jones).

"International Sex Crimes as a Criminal Justice Theme", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Policy Brief Series No. 4 (2011), Oslo, 2011, ISBN 978-82-93081-45-6 (for French, Portuguese and Spanish versions, see www.fichl.org/policy-brief-series/).

"The Autonomy of International Criminal Justice", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Policy Brief Series No. 3 (2011), Oslo, 2011, ISBN 978-82-93081-44-9.

"Complementarity After Kampala: Capacity Building and the ICC Legal Tools", in Goettingen Journal of International Law 2 (2010), 791-811 (with Olympia Bekou and Annika Jones); also published in Morten Bergsmo: Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2011, pp. 3-23.

"Preserving the Overview of Law and Facts: the Case Matrix", in Alette Smeulers (editor): Collective Violence and International Criminal Justice, Intersentia, 2010, pp. 413-435 (with Olympia Bekou and Annika Jones); also published in Morten Bergsmo: Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2011, pp. 43-66.

"New Technologies in Criminal Justice for Core International Crimes: The ICC Legal Tools Project", in Human Rights Law Review 10:4 (2010), pp. 715-729 (with Olympia Bekou and Annika Jones); also published in Morten Bergsmo: Active Complementarity: Legal Information Transfer, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2011, pp. 25-42.

"Complementarity and the Exercise of Universal Jurisdiction for Core International Crimes", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, 314 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-14-2 (editor). Reviewed by CHEAH Wui Ling in Criminal Law Forum 2013.

"Between Territoriality and Universality: Room for Further Reflection", in Morten Bergsmo (editor): Complementarity and the Exercise of Universal Jurisdiction for Core International Crimes, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, 1-6 pp.

"Distributive Justice in Transitions", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, 442 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-12-8 (English), (co-editor with César Rodriguez-Garavito, Pablo Kalmanovitz and Maria Paula). Reviewed by Gunnar Ekeløve-Slydal in Nordic Journal of Human Rights 31:3 (2013), 464-67; by Zinaida Miller in International Journal of Transitional Justice, 2013, 1–11.

"Introduction", in Morten Bergsmo et al. Distributive Justice in Transitions, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, 1-14 pp. (co-authored with César Rodriguez-Garavito, Pablo Kalmanovitz and Maria Paula Saffon). 

"The Backlog of Core International Crimes Case Files in Bosnia and Herzegovina", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, Second Edition, 218 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-04-3 (with Kjetil Helvig, Ilia Utmelidze and Gorana Zagovec).

"Law in Peace Negotiations", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, Second Edition, 442 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-09-8 (co-editor with Pablo Kalmanovitz). Reviewed by Abby Zeith in Oxford Socio-Legal Review, Vol. 1 (2015), Issue 1.

"Criteria for Prioritizing and Selecting Core International Crimes Cases", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, Second Edition, 284 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-07-4 (editor).

"The Theme of Selection and Prioritization Criteria and Why it Is Relevant", in Morten Bergsmo (editor): Criteria for Prioritizing and Selecting Core International Crimes Cases, Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, Second Edition, pp. 7-14.

"Importing Core International Crimes into National Criminal Law", Torkel Opsahl Academic EPublisher, Oslo, 2010, Second Edition, 74 pp., ISBN 978-82-93081-01-2 (co-editor with Mads Harlem and Nobuo Hayashi).

"Human Rights Professionals and the Criminal Investigation and Prosecution of Core International Crimes", in Siri Skåre, Ingvild Burkey and Hege Mørk (editors): Manual on Human Rights Monitoring, Oslo, University of Oslo, 2008, Second Edition, Chapter 10, pp. 1-29 (with William Wiley).

"International Criminal Courts and Tribunals: Complementarity and Jurisdiction", in Rüdiger Wolfrum (main editor): Max Planck Encyclopedia of Public International Law, Oxford University Press, 2008, online (with Philippa Webb).

"Some Lessons for the ICC from the International Judicial Response to the Rwandan Genocide", in Zachary Kaufman and Philip Clark (editors): After Genocide: Transitional Justice, Post-Conflict Reconstruction and Reconciliation in Rwanda and Beyond, Columbia University Press and C. Hurst Publishers Ltd., 2008, pp. 351-361 (with Philippa Webb).

"Tematisk etterforskning og straffeforfølgning av seksualisert vold i konflikt: er det en uproblematisk praksis?" ["Thematic investigation and prosecution of sexualized violence in conflict: is that an unproblematic practice?"], in Hege Skjeie, Inger Skjelsbæk and Torunn L. Tryggestad (editors): Kjønn, Krig, Konflikt ["Gender, War, Con-flict"], 2008, pp. 79-91.

"Innovations at the International Criminal Court: bringing new technologies into the investigation and prosecution of core international crimes", in Henning Radtke, Dieter Rössner, Theo Schiller and Wolfgang Form (editors): Historische Dimensionen von Kriegsverbrecherprozessen nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, Studien zum Strafrecht 9, Nomos, 2007, pp. 205-212 (with Philippa Webb). 

"Genocidal Intent", in Dinah L. Shelton, Howard Adelman, Frank Chalk, Alexandre Kiss and William A. Schabas (editors): Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity, 2004, pp. 524-530.

"Some Tentative Remarks on the Relationship Between Internationalized Criminal Jurisdictions and the Inter-national Criminal Court", in Cesare Romano (editor): Internationalized Courts and Tribunals, 2004, pp. 402-411 (with Markus Benzing).

"Criminal Justice and Human Rights for the Downtrodden: Essays in Honour of Asbjørn Eide", Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2003, 825 pp. (editor).

"Preliminary Observations on the Powers and Role of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court", in Current Problems of International Humanitarian Law, International Institute of Humanitarian Law, 23rd Round Table, San Remo, 2-4 September 1998, 2001, pp. 42-51.

"Occasional remarks on certain State concerns about the jurisdictional reach of the International Criminal Court, and their possible implications for the relationship between the Court and the Security Council", in Nordic Journal of International Law 69, pp. 87-113, 2000. 

"The Prosecutors of the International Tribunals", in Louise Arbour, Albin Eser, Kai Ambos and A. Sanders (editors): The Prosecutor of a Permanent International Criminal Court, 2000, pp. 121-154 (with Catherine Cissé and Christopher Staker); in French ("Les Procureurs des Tribunaux internationaux"), ibid., pp. 155-189.

"Preamble", in Otto Triffterer (editor): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article, 1999, pp. 1-16. In the second edition, C.H. Beck, Hart and Nomos, 2008, pp. 1-14.

"Article 15: Prosecutor", in Otto Triffterer (editor): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article, 1999, pp. 359-372 (with Jelena Peji?). In the second edition, C.H. Beck, Hart and Nomos, 2008, pp. 581-593.

"Article 16: Deferral of investigation or prosecution", in Otto Triffterer (editor): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article, 1999, pp. 373-382 (with Jelena Peji?). In the second edition, C.H. Beck, Hart and Nomos, 2008, pp. 595-604.

"Article 42: The Office of the Prosecutor", in Otto Triffterer (editor): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article, 1999, pp. 627-636 (with Frederik Harhoff). In the second edition, C.H. Beck, Hart and Nomos, 2008, pp. 971-979.

"Article 53: Initiation of an investigation", in Otto Triffterer (editor): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article, 1999, pp. 701-714 (with Pieter Kruger). In the second edition, C.H. Beck, Hart and Nomos, 2008, pp. 1065-1076.

"Article 54: Duties and powers of the Prosecutor with respect to investigations", in Otto Triffterer (editor): Commentary on the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court: Observers' Notes, Article by Article, 1999, pp. 715-725 (with Pieter Kruger). In the second edition, C.H. Beck, Hart and Nomos, 2008, pp. 1077-1087.

"Conspicuous Absence of Jurisdictional Overreach", in International Law Forum du droit international 1, pp. 13-19, 1999; also published in H.A.M. von Hebel, J.G. Lammers and J. Schukking (editors): Reflections on the International Criminal Court: Essays in Honour of Adriaan Bos, 1999, pp. 129-140; in Norwegian ("Den internasjonale jurisdiksjon er ikke for vidtrekkende"), in EU-ret & Menneskeret, 2, June 2000, pp. 62-68, and in 2000 Mennesker og Rettigheter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights), 1-2, pp. 109-116 (with Louise Arbour).

"The Jurisdictional Régime of the International Criminal Court (Part II, Articles 11-19)", in European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 1998-4, pp. 345-363; in Spanish ("El régimen de la competencia de la Corte Penal Internacional (parte II, arts. 11 a 19"), in Kai Ambos and O.J. Guerrero: El Estatuto de Roma de la Corte Penal Internacional, 1999, pp. 179-210; in Portugese ("O regime jurisdicional da Corte Internacional Criminal"), in Kai Ambos and F.H. Choukr: Tribunal Penal Internacional, 2000, pp. 221-245.

"Folkerettslig belysning av 'etnisk rensing' i det tidligere Yugoslavia" [an analysis under international law of the practice of "ethnic cleansing" in the former Yugoslavia], in Bård-Anders Andreassen and Elin Skaar (editors): Forsoning eller rettferdighet? Om beskyttelse av menneskerettighetene gjennom sannhetskommisjoner og rettstribunaler, 1998, pp. 75-133; in Bosnian, in Enver Ðuliman (editor): Tesko pomirenje, 2000, pp. 75-128.

"Despite Shortcomings, a Court Deserving Support", in United Nations Chronicle, Vol. XXXV, Number 3, 1998, pp. 12-13 (with Louise Arbour).

"Case Preparation for the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", in Hege Araldsen and Øyvind Thiis (editors): Manual on Human Rights Monitoring: An Introduction for Human Rights Field Officers, 1997, Chapter 10, pp. 1-12 (with Michael Keegan).

"Den internasjonale domstol for forbrytelser i det tidligere Jugoslavia: rettslig grunnlag og domsmyndighet" [analysis of the legal basis and jurisdiction of the ICTY], in 1996 Mennesker og Rettigheter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights) 1, pp. 29-47.

"International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia: Recent Developments", in 1994 Human Rights Law Journal 11-12, Vol. 15, pp. 405-409.

"The Establishment of the International Tribunal, A Note", in 1993 Human Rights Law Journal 9-10, Vol. 14, pp. 371 ff.

"Etnisk rensing og internasjonal rett", in 1993 Mennesker og Rettighter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights) 2, pp. 176 ff. [on the concept of "ethnic cleansing" in the context of the armed conflicts in the former Yugoslavia 1991-93 and international law].

"Krigsforbrytelsesdomstolen - litt om Generalsekretærens forslag", in 1993 Mennesker og Rettigheter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights) 2, pp. 195 ff. [review of the report by the UN Secretary-General on the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia dated 3 May 1993, UN document S/25704].

"Nürnbergprinsippene - et kort tilbakeblikk", in 1993 Mennesker og Rettigheter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights) 2, pp. 197 ff. [note on the Nuremburg Principles adopted by the UN General Assembly].

"The Application of the Doctrine of State Responsibility to Refugee Creating States", in 1989 Nordic Journal of International Law 3/4 (with Payam Akhavan).

"Til begrepers begripelse", in 1988 Mennesker og Rettigheter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights) 2, pp. 61 ff. [review of Raoul Wallenberg Institute Report No. 4 with articles on refugees and human rights by Dr. Göran Melander and Dr. Peter Nobel].

"Offentligrettslig erstatningsansvar", in 1988 Jussens Venner 1, pp. 41 ff. [review of a doctoral dissertation on government liability in Norwegian law].

"Menneskerettighetscharteret til Organisasjonen for Afrikansk Enhet er trådt i kraft", in 1987 Mennesker og Rettigheter (Nordic Journal of Human Rights) 4, pp. 15 ff. [note on the African Human Rights Charter].

"Et arabisk charter for menneskerettigheter", in ibid., pp. 40 ff. [note on the Siracusa Arab Charter for Human Rights].

"I stimulerende grenseland", in 1987 Kritisk Juss 1/2, pp. 50 ff. [review of C. F. Murphy: The Search for World Order].